Autophagy Support

  • Cristina Carresi, et al, Anti-oxidant effect of bergamot polyphenolic fraction counteracts doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy: Role of autophagy and c-kitposCD45negCD31neg cardiac stem cell activation, Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology, Volume 119, 2018, Pages 10-18,ISSN 0022-2828, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yjmcc.2018.04.007.
  • Dickinson, Sally E et al. “A novel chemopreventive mechanism for a traditional medicine: East Indian sandalwood oil induces autophagy and cell death in proliferating keratinocytes” Archives of biochemistry and biophysics vol. 558 (2014): 143-52.
  • Jeong JB, Choi J, Lou Z, Jiang X, Lee SH. Patchouli alcohol, an essential oil of Pogostemon cablin, exhibits anti-tumorigenic activity in human colorectal cancer cells. Int Immunopharmacol. 2013 Jun;16(2):184-90. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2013.04.006. Epub 2013 Apr 17. PubMed PMID: 23602914.
  • M. Tiziana, et al. (2015). Evidence that the essential oil of bergamot modulates autophagy flux in human tumor cell lines. Planta Medica. 81. 10.1055/s-0035-1565407
  • Pathania, A. S. et al. Interplay between cell cycle and autophagy induced by boswellic acid analog. Sci. Rep. 6, 33146; doi: 10.1038/srep33146 (2016).
  • Ren P, Ren X, Cheng L, Xu L. Frankincense, pine needle and geranium essential oils suppress tumor progression through the regulation of the AMPK/mTOR pathway in breast cancer. Oncol Rep. 2018 Jan;39(1):129-137. doi: 10.3892/or.2017.6067. Epub 2017 Nov 1. PubMed PMID: 29115548; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5783593
  • Russo R, Cassiano MGV, et al. (2014) Role of D-Limonene in Autophagy Induced by Bergamot Essential Oil in SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells. PLoS ONE 9(11): e113682. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113682select
  • Santha S, Dwivedi C. α-Santalol, a skin cancer chemopreventive agent with potential to target various pathways involved in photocarcinogenesis. Photochem Photobiol.2013 Jul-Aug;89(4):919-26. doi: 10.1111/php.12070. Epub 2013 Apr 1. PubMed PMID: 23480292.

EMF Blend

  1. Alvarez-Collazo J, et al. Cinnamaldehyde inhibits L-type calcium channels in mouse ventricular cardiomyocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells. Pflugers Arch. 2014 Nov;466(11):2089-99. doi: 10.1007/s00424-014-1472-8. Epub 2014 Feb 25. PubMed PMID: 24563220.
  2. de Menezes-Filho JE, et al. Geraniol blocks calcium and potassium channels in the mammalian myocardium: useful effects to treat arrhythmias. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2014 Dec;115(6):534-44. doi: 10.1111/bcpt.12274. Epub 2014 Jul 4. PubMed PMID: 24862086.
  3. El Alaoui C, et al.  (2017) Modulation of T-type Ca2+ channels by Lavender and Rosemary extracts. PLOS ONE 12(10): e0186864.https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0186864
  4. Heghes SC, Vostinaru O, Rus LM, Mogosan C, Iuga CA, Filip L. Antispasmodic Effect of Essential Oils and Their Constituents: A Review. Molecules. 2019 Apr 29;24(9). doi: 10.3390/molecules24091675. Review. PubMed PMID: 31035694; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6539827.
  5. Mohaddese Mahboubi, Rosa damascena as holy ancient herb with novel applications,
  6. Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine,Volume 6, Issue 1,2016,Pages 0-16,ISSN 2225-4110,https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcme.2015.09.005.
  7. Oz M, et al. Cellular and Molecular Targets of Menthol Actions. Front Pharmacol. 2017;8:472. Published 2017 Jul 18. doi:10.3389/fphar.2017.0047

 

Mast Cell Stabilizing

  1. Boisvert WA, Yu M, Choi Y, Jeong GH, Zhang YL, Cho S, Choi C, Lee S, Lee BH. Hair growth-promoting effect of Geranium sibiricum extract in human dermal papilla cells and C57BL/6 mice. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017 Feb 13;17(1):109. doi: 10.1186/s12906-017-1624-4. PubMed PMID: 28193226; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5307826.
  2. Choi YH, Yan GH, Chai OH, Song CH.   Inhibitory effects of curcumin on passive cutaneous anaphylactoid response and compound 48/80-induced mast cell activation.   Anat Cell Biol. 2010 Mar;43(1):36-43. https://doi.org/10.5115/acb.2010.43.1.36
  3. Inoue T, Sugimoto Y, Masuda H, Kamei C. Effects of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) extracts on experimental allergic rhinitis in rats. Biol Pharm Bull. 2001 Jan;24(1):92-5. PubMed PMID: 11201253.
  4. Kinney SR, Carlson L, Ser-Dolansky J, Thompson C, Shah S, Gambrah A, Xing W, Schneider SS, Mathias CB. Curcumin Ingestion Inhibits Mastocytosis and Suppresses Intestinal Anaphylaxis in a Murine Model of Food Allergy. PLoS One. 2015 Jul 6;10(7):e0132467. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0132467. eCollection 2015. PubMed PMID: 26147007; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4493063.
  5. Kobayashi Y, Sato H, Yorita M, Nakayama H, Miyazato H, Sugimoto K, Jippo T. Inhibitory effects of geranium essential oil and its major component, citronellol, on degranulation and cytokine production by mast cells. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2016 Jun;80(6):1172-8. doi: 10.1080/09168451.2016.1148573. Epub 2016 Mar 1. PubMed PMID: 26927807.
  6. Shakeri A, Cicero AFG, Panahi Y, Mohajeri M, Sahebkar A. Curcumin: A naturally occurring autophagy modulator. J Cell Physiol. 2019 May;234(5):5643-5654. doi: 10.1002/jcp.27404. Epub 2018 Sep 21. Review. PubMed PMID: 30239005.
  7. Zhang N, Li H, Jia J, He M. Anti-inflammatory effect of curcumin on mast cell-mediated allergic responses in ovalbumin-induced allergic rhinitis mouse. Cell Immunol. 2015 Nov-Dec;298(1-2):88-95. doi: 10.1016/j.cellimm.2015.09.010. Epub 2015 Sep 28. PubMed PMID: 26507910.

 

Master Antioxidant

  1. Bouzenna H, et al. Protective effect of essential oil from Citrus limon against aspirin-induced toxicity in rats. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2018 Dec 19:960327118819044. doi: 10.1177/0960327118819044. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30565488.
  2. Campêlo LM, et al. Antioxidant activity of Citrus limon essential oil in mouse hippocampus. Pharm Biol. 2011 Jul;49(7):709-15. doi: 10.3109/13880209.2010.541924. PubMed PMID: 21639684.
  3. Diab KA. In Vitro Studies on Phytochemical Content, Antioxidant, Anticancer, Immunomodulatory, and Antigenotoxic Activities of Lemon, Grapefruit, and Mandarin Citrus Peels. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016;17(7):3559-67. PubMed PMID: 27510009.
  4. Dugasani S, et al. Comparative antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, [10]-gingerol and [6]-shogaol. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Feb 3;127(2):515-20. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2009.10.004. Epub 2009 Oct 13. PubMed PMID: 19833188.
  5. F. Khalil, et al. (2015). Protective effect of peppermint and parsley leaves oils against hepatotoxicity on experimental rats. Annals of Agricultural Sciences. 60. 10.1016/j.aoas.2015.11.004. 
  6. Gallego, M.G., Gordon, M.H., Segovia, F.J. et al. J Am Oil Chem Soc (2013) 90: 1559. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-013-2303-3
  7. Ogaly HA, Eltablawy NA, Abd-Elsalam RM. Antifibrogenic Influence of Mentha piperita L. Essential Oil against CCl4-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Rats. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2018;2018:4039753. Published 2018 Apr 19. doi:10.1155/2018/4039753

 

NRF2 Support

  1. Chen XY, et al. . β-Patchoulene from patchouli oil protects against LPS-induced acute lung injury via suppressing NF-κB and activating Nrf2 pathways. Int Immunopharmacol. 2017 Sep;50:270-278. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2017.07.001. Epub 2017 Jul 13. PubMed PMID: 28711783.
  2. Miao Yan, et al., Standardized rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extract induces Nrf2/sestrin-2 pathway in colon cancer cells, Journal of Functional Foods,  Volume 13, 2015, Pages 137-147, ISSN 1756-4646. 
  3. Li, Yang & Lv, et al. (2015). Linalool Inhibits LPS-Induced Inflammation in BV2 Microglia Cells by Activating Nrf2. Neurochemical research. 40. 10.1007/s11064-015-1629-7. 
  4. Liu X, et al. Effect of patchouli alcohol on the regulation of heat shock-induced oxidative stress in IEC-6 cells. Int J Hyperthermia. 2016 Aug;32(5):474-82. doi: 10.3109/02656736.2016.1147617. Epub 2016 Apr 7. PubMed PMID: 27056378.
  5. Pan Xu, Kezhu Wang, Cong Lu, et al., “The Protective Effect of Lavender Essential Oil and Its Main Component Linalool against the Cognitive Deficits Induced by D-Galactose and Aluminum Trichloride in Mice,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2017, Article ID 7426538, 11 pages, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/7426538
  6. Satoh, T. , et al.  (2008), Carnosic acid, a catechol‐type electrophilic compound, protects neurons both in vitro and in vivo through activation of the Keap1/Nrf2 pathway via S‐alkylation of targeted cysteines on Keap1. Journal of Neurochemistry, 104: 1116-1131. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2007.05039.x
  7. Xiao-pei Tong, et al.  “Rosemary Extracts Upregulate Nrf2, Sestrin2, and MRP2 Protein Level in Human Hepatoma HepG2 Cells,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2017, Article ID 7359806, 7 pages, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/7359806.
  8. Yang HM, et al.  Pogostone attenuates TNF-α-induced injury in A549 cells via inhibiting NF-κB and activating Nrf2 pathways. Int Immunopharmacol. 2018 Sep;62:15-22. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2018.06.029. Epub 2018 Jun 30. PubMed PMID: 29966943.

 

 

GABA Support

  1. Ahmad, Aftab et al. “A review on therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa: A miracle herb.” Asian Pacific journal of tropical biomedicine vol. 3,5 (2013): 337-52. doi:10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60075-1
  2. Harada H, Kashiwadani H, Kanmura Y and Kuwaki T (2018) Linalool Odor-Induced Anxiolytic Effects in Mice. Front. Behav. Neurosci. 12:241. doi: 10.3389/fnbeh.2018.00241
  3. Jawaid, T., Kamal, M., Singh, R. et al. Orient Pharm Exp Med (2018) 18: 237. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13596-018-0306-1
  4. Manavi Chatterjee, Pinki Verma, Rakesh Maurya & Gautam Palit (2011) Evaluation of ethanol leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum in experimental models of anxiety and depression, Pharmaceutical Biology, 49:5, 477-483, DOI: 10.3109/13880209.2010.523832
  5. Silva Brum, L.F., Emanuelli, T., Souza, D.O. et al. Neurochem Res (2001) 26: 191. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1010904214482
  6. Sharma, Lalit & Sharma, Aditi & Gupta, Girdhari & Bisht, Gopal. (2018). Protective effect of Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaf extract on ethanol withdrawal syndrome in Wistar rats. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine. 11. 467. 10.4103/1995-7645.240082.
  7. Sundaram, Rajagopal & Lakshminarayanan, Gowtham & Rajesh, Ramadass & Dharmalingam, Senthil & Kumarappan, Chidambaram & Ramamurthy, Srinivasan. (2013). Neuroprotective potential of Ocimum sanctum (Linn) leaf extract in monosodium glutamate induced excitotoxicity. African journal of pharmacy and pharmacology. 7. 1894-1906. 10.5897/AJPP12.1445.
  8. Wang, Ze-Jun, and Thomas Heinbockel. “Essential Oils and Their Constituents Targeting the GABAergic System and Sodium Channels as Treatment of Neurological Diseases.” Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) vol. 23,5 1061. 2 May. 2018, doi:10.3390/molecules23051061

 

Mycotoxin Defense

  1. A. Akgül, M. Kivanç,Inhibitory effects of selected Turkish spices and oregano components on some foodborne fungi,International Journal of Food Microbiology,Volume 6, Issue 3,1988,Pages 263-268,ISSN 0168-1605,

https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-1605(88)90019-0.(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0168160588900190)

  1. Esper, Renata H et al. “Potential of essential oils for protection of grains contaminated by aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus.” Frontiers in microbiology vol. 5 269. 4 Jun. 2014, doi:10.3389/fmicb.2014.00269
  2. de Freitas Souza, Carine & Baldissera, Matheus & Descovi, Sharine & Zeppenfeld, Carla & Eslava-Mocha, Pedro & da Gloria, Eduardo & Zanette, Régis & Baldisserotto, Bernardo & Silva, Aleksandro & Dias, Carlos. (2019). Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil abrogates hepatic oxidative damage in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) fed with an aflatoxin-contaminated diet. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C Comparative Pharmacology. 221. 10.1016/j.cbpc.2019.03.007. 
  3. Hua H, Xing F, Selvaraj JN, Wang Y, Zhao Y, et al. (2014) Inhibitory Effect of Essential Oils on Aspergillus ochraceus Growth and Ochratoxin A Production. PLOS ONE 9(9): e108285. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0108285
  4. Juglal, Sarla & Govinden, Roshini & Odhav, Bharti. (2002). Spice Oils for the Control of Co-Occurring Mycotoxin-Producing Fungi. Journal of food protection. 65. 683-7. 10.4315/0362-028X-65.4.683. 
  5. Mitchell, Teresa Cristina, Stamford, Tânia Lúcia Montenegro, Souza, Evandro Leite de, Lima, Edeltrudes de Oliveira, & Carmo, Egberto Santos. (2010). Origanum vulgare L. essential oil as inhibitor of potentially toxigenic Aspergilli. Food Science and Technology, 30(3), 755-760. https://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0101-20612010000300029
  6. Schroder, Tiffany et al. “Antifungal activity of essential oils against fungi isolated from air.” International journal of occupational and environmental health vol. 23,3 (2017): 181-186. doi:10.1080/10773525.2018.1447320
  7. Whiley, Harriet, Sharyn Gaskin, Tiffany Schroder, et al. “Antifungal properties of essential oils for improvement of indoor air quality: a review” Reviews on Environmental Health, 33.1 (2017): 63-76. Retrieved 21 Nov. 2019, from doi:10.1515/reveh-2017-0023

 

Inflammation Defense

  1. Boukhatem, Mohamed Nadjib et al. “Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil as a potent anti-inflammatory and antifungal drugs.” The Libyan journal of medicine vol. 9 25431. 19 Sep. 2014, doi:10.3402/ljm.v9.25431
  2. Shaheen E. Lakhan, Heather Sheafer, and Deborah Tepper, “The Effectiveness of Aromatherapy in Reducing Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis,” Pain Research and Treatment, vol. 2016, Article ID 8158693, 13 pages, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/8158693.
  3. Srivastava, Janmejai K et al. “Chamomile: A herbal medicine of the past with bright future.” Molecular medicine reports vol. 3,6 (2010): 895-901. doi:10.3892/mmr.2010.377
  4. Su, Shulan et al. “Frankincense and myrrh suppress inflammation via regulation of the metabolic profiling and the MAPK signaling pathway.” Scientific reports vol. 5 13668. 2 Sep. 2015, doi:10.1038/srep13668
  5. Su, Shulan & Hua, Yongqing & Wang, Yanyan & Gu, Wei & Zhou, Wei & Liu, Jin-Liang & Jiang, Haifeng & Chen, Ting & Tang, Yuping. (2011). Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of individual and combined extracts from Commiphora myrrha, and Boswellia carterii. Journal of ethnopharmacology. 139. 649-56. 10.1016/j.jep.2011.12.013. 
  6. Yadav, Renu et al. “Curcumin Suppresses the Production of Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Interleukin-18 in Lipopolysaccharide Stimulated Murine Macrophage-Like Cells.” Indian journal of clinical biochemistry : IJCB vol. 30,1 (2015): 109-12. doi:10.1007/s12291-014-0452-2

Viral Defense

  1. Aanouz, I et al. “Moroccan Medicinal plants as inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2 main protease: Computational investigations.” Journal of biomolecular structure & dynamics, 1-9. 6 May. 2020, doi:10.1080/07391102.2020.1758790
  2. Ács, K., Balázs, V.L., Kocsis, B. et al. Antibacterial activity evaluation of selected essential oils in liquid and vapor phase on respiratory tract pathogens. BMC Complement Altern Med 18, 227 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-018-2291-9
  3. Boukhatem, Mohamed. (2020). Effective Antiviral Activity of Essential Oils and their Characteristics Terpenes against Coronaviruses: An Update. 8. 1138.
  4. Garozzo, A., Timpanaro, R., Bisignano, B., Furneri, P., Bisignano, G. and Castro, A. (2009), In vitro antiviral activity of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 49: 806-808. doi:10.1111/j.1472-765X.2009.02740.x
  5. Janice S. Mani, Joel B. Johnson, Jason C. Steel, Daniel A. Broszczak, Paul M. Neilsen, Kerry B. Walsh, Mani Naiker, Natural product-derived phytochemicals as potential agents against coronaviruses: A review, Virus Research, Volume 284, 2020, 197989,ISSN 0168-1702, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2020.197989.
  6. Jassim SA, Naji MA. Novel antiviral agents: a medicinal plant perspective. J Appl Microbiol. 2003;95(3):412-427. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2672.2003.02026.x
  7. Garozzo, A., Timpanaro, R., Bisignano, B., Furneri, P., Bisignano, G. and Castro, A. (2009), In vitro antiviral activity of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 49: 806-808. doi:10.1111/j.1472-765X.2009.02740.x
  8. Lingbeck, Jody M et al. “Sweetgum: An ancient source of beneficial compounds with modern benefits.” Pharmacognosy reviews vol. 9,17 (2015): 1-11. doi:10.4103/0973-7847.156307
  9. Liza B. Enrich, Margaret L. Scheuermann, Ashley Mohadjer, Kathryn R. Matthias, Chrystal F. Eller, M. Scott Newman, Michael Fujinaka, Thomas Poon, Liquidambar styraciflua: a renewable source of shikimic acid, Tetrahedron Letters, Volume 49, Issue 16, 2008, Pages 2503-2505, ISSN 0040-4039, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tetlet.2008.02.140.
  10. Loizzo, M., Saab, A., Tundis, R., Statti, G., Menichini, F., Lampronti, I., Gambari, R., Cinatl, J. and Doerr, H. (2008), Phytochemical Analysis and in vitro Antiviral Activities of the Essential Oils of Seven Lebanon Species. Chemistry & Biodiversity, 5: 461-470. doi:10.1002/cbdv.200890045
  11. Prall, Sebastian et al. “Effects of essential oils on symptoms and course (duration and severity) of viral respiratory infections in humans: A rapid review.” Advances in integrative medicine, 10.1016/j.aimed.2020.07.005. 3 Aug. 2020, doi:10.1016/j.aimed.2020.07.005
  12. Priyanka Singh, Gupta E, Neha Mishra, Mishra P. Shikimic acid as intermediary model for the production of drugs effective against influenza virus. Phytochemicals as Lead Compounds for New Drug Discovery. 2020 :245-256.
  13. Senthil Kumar, K J et al. “Geranium and Lemon Essential Oils and Their Active Compounds Downregulate Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2), a SARS-CoV-2 Spike Receptor-Binding Domain, in Epithelial Cells.” Plants (Basel, Switzerland) vol. 9,6 770. 19 Jun. 2020, doi:10.3390/plants9060770